Liver Cancer Treatment In Jaipur
Liver cancer, also called liver/hepatocellular cancer or carcinoma, occurs when liver cells grow abnormally and destroy or damage normal cells. Due to this the liver stops doing its normal functions. It is said to be more common in men over the age of 60. for instant book an appointment for liver cancer treatment in Jaipur visit JaipurGastro Clinic.
The liver performs various functions in the body such as filtering the blood circulating in the body, adding nutrients from digested food to the blood, absorbing drugs and converting them into chemicals that are absorbed by the blood, freeing from harmful toxins and blood. Removal of particles etc. Since the blood in the body has to pass through the liver, cancer cells from different parts of the body can easily affect the liver.
Primary liver cancer (cancer that begins in the cells of the liver) is rare and is mostly caused by hepatic viral conditions such as hepatitis, etc. Metastatic liver cancer is secondary to cancer in other parts of the body and through it spreads to liver cells. blood flow.
What are the types of Liver Cancer?
Broadly speaking, liver cancer can be classified as –
Benign tumors of the liver- These are non-cancerous tumors that can be surgically removed if there is pain or bleeding. The most commonly found are-
- Leiomyoma of the liver
- Fibroma of the liver
- Lipoma of the liver
- Ulcers in the liver
- Focal nodular hyperplasia
- Hepatic adenoma
- Hepatic hemangioma
Liver cancer – These are types of cancer that spread to other parts of the body and can be life-threatening, thus requiring surgery or cancer therapy. These are-
Cholangiocarcinoma- These are cancers of the bile duct and require surgery.
Following are some types of liver cancer –
Angiosarcoma of the liver – Also known as hemangiocarcinoma, this type of liver cancer accounts for about 1% of all liver cancer cases. This cancer begins in the blood vessels of the liver and grows rapidly.
Cancer of the bile duct – Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this type of cancer is present in the small tube of the liver, that is, the bile duct. This tube connects the liver to the gallbladder and can lead to cancer. They account for 10-20% of all liver cancers.
It is more likely to occur in people with severe liver damage due to alcohol abuse or in patients with fatty liver, hepatitis etc. If diagnosed at an early stage, patients can be treated with surgery or liver transplantation. However, in advanced cases the patient’s life can be extended with supportive treatment, but it cannot be cured.
Hepatocellular carcinoma – Also called hepatoma, this is the most common type of liver cancer. It accounts for 75% of all liver cancers. This condition develops in hepatocytes, which are the main cells in the liver. It spreads from the liver to other parts of the body, such as the intestines, pancreas, and stomach.
Fibrolamellar hepatic cell carcinoma – This is comparatively more responsive to treatment than other types of liver cancer and is a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Secondary liver cancer – also called liver metastasis. It develops when a primary cancer originating from another part of the body eventually spreads to the liver. Most liver metastases arise from colon or colorectal cancer. More than half of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer later develop secondary liver cancer.
What are the stages of Liver Cancer
Very early stage – The tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters (cm). There is no significant increase in pressure in the portal vein, one of the most important blood vessels of the liver. Bilirubin level is normal. Surgery is usually advised.
Early stage – The tumor is smaller than 5 cm in size. Liver function varies. There may be increased portal vein pressure, increased portal vein pressure, and normal or increased bilirubin levels.
Intermediate stage – The tumor may be a single, large tumor or may be multiple, smaller tumors. Doctors usually recommend regional therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization, as a treatment method.
Advanced stage – The tumor has either infiltrated the portal vein or spread to various parts of the body, such as lymph nodes, bones, and lungs. Targeted therapy is the preferred method of treatment.
What are the causes of Liver Cancer?
Liver cancer occurs when liver cells develop various mutations in their DNA. Liver cancer often occurs when there is a change in the DNA in cells. This causes the cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors.
Following are some common causes of liver cancer:
Anabolic steroids – muscle-enhancing testosterone drugs used by men or athletes have a very degrading effect on liver cells in the long run and can lead to liver cancer. Metabolic diseases such as iron storage diseases.
Viral infections such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C– These are spread through feces or needle prick cross contamination of infected individuals, and symptoms of liver cancer may appear years after the viral infection.
Obesity – This leads to fatty liver disease, which increases the risk of liver cancer.
Excessive drinking – Long-term alcohol consumption (especially combined with smoking), daily consumption of more than 2-3 drinks over years is associated with a very high risk of developing liver cancer.
Liver Cirrhosis – This is a very serious liver condition where liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue, which occurs due to many reasons such as chronic alcohol consumption, toxins, drugs, excessive damage to the liver Iron deposits, viral infections etc.
Aflatoxin – This is a very harmful chemical, which is made from the mold of the fungus present on peanuts, maize, nuts and cereals. This leads to liver cancer in many patients.
Diabetes – In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, it can lead to liver cancer and liver damage.
Risk factors for Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Treatment In Jaipur
The following factors increase the chances of getting liver cancer.
- Chronic hepatitis infection with HBV or HCV virus increases the risk of liver cancer.
- The accumulation of excessive fat in the liver increases the risk of liver cancer.
- In some cases, liver cancer may be due to genetic factors or inherited metabolic diseases such as Wilson’s disease or hemochromatosis, tyrosinemia, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, etc.
- People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing liver cancer.
- Being obese or overweight can increase the risk of liver cancer.
- People who drink heavily have a higher risk of developing liver cancer and irreversible liver damage.
- Exposure to aflatoxins (poisons produced by fungi that grow poorly on crops) increases the risk of liver cancer.
- Men have a higher risk of developing liver cancer than women.
- Certain communities and ethnicities are known to be more prone to developing liver cancer, such as Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.
- Abuse of anabolic steroids or excessive use of male hormones that increase muscle mass, used by athletes, increases the risk of liver cancer with long-term use.
Symptoms of Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Treatment In Jaipur
Usually, symptoms of liver cancer may not be present in the beginning, but once the cancer progresses, you may experience the following symptoms.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Swelling or swelling in the upper right part of the abdomen.
- Enlargement of liver and spleen.
- Lump-like feeling in the upper part of the abdomen.
- Swelling in legs, feet.
- Loss of appetite.
- Pain or tenderness in the upper right part of the abdomen (pain to the touch)
- Yellow, chalky and black colored stools, urine.
- weight loss (unexplained)
- Fatigue and tiredness.
- Mental confusion.
- Yellowing of eyes and skin (jaundice)
How do you diagnose Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Treatment In Jaipur
To diagnose liver cancer, your doctor will first do a physical exam and ask questions about any history of liver disease and alcohol addiction. The following tests may be done to confirm an accurate diagnosis of liver cancer.
Physical examination – Your doctor will touch the abdomen to feel and check for swelling and lumps in the liver, spleen, and other nearby organs. The abdomen is also checked for abnormal build-up of fluid and signs of jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Liver biopsy – During a liver biopsy, your doctor either inserts a thin needle through the skin to take a small sample of your tissue, or, makes a small cut in the abdomen near the site of the liver. and take a tissue biopsy.
Angiogram – An angiogram is used to get a clear X-ray picture of blood vessels. A dye is injected into the bloodstream to be able to visualize the blood vessels of the liver.
Blood test – The doctor conducts a blood test on the patient to detect abnormal liver function. Your doctor will do a blood test to look for a substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). It is found to be elevated in the blood of about 50% to 70% of people with liver cancer.
Imaging Tests – In this screening process, your doctor may recommend imaging tests like ultrasound, CT, MRI etc. This is done to identify any tumors and the spread of the tumor to the liver.
Laparoscopy – This is a test that allows the doctor to look inside the body with a thin, lighted, flexible tube called a laparoscope. It is not often used to diagnose liver cancer.
How to prevent Liver Cancer?
The risk of developing liver cancer can be reduced by following methods or lifestyle modifications –
- Health care professionals at high risk of exposure to hepatitis and other viral infections should get vaccinated.
- Excessive alcohol consumption should be avoided.
- Quit smoking or illegal drug abuse.
- Follow safe sex measures.
- Do not take iron supplements without a doctor’s advice.
- Avoid overuse or long-term use of anabolic steroids.
- Weight should be kept within BMI range, fatty liver patients need to consult a doctor regularly for proper treatment.
- Diabetics should monitor and control these blood sugar levels (with lifestyle modifications, diet, and medications).
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